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Archive for July, 2016|Monthly archive page

Economic Cost of Badly Designed Software Systems

In Design Methodologies, Education, Embedded Systems, Engineering Principles on July 18, 2016 at 10:47 PM

The goal of every design activity, whether in computing or in some other field, is to come up with a system that serves some economic purpose. So, there are software and hardware systems that fly an airplane, that run our cars and power grids etc. In the past, people were distantly connected with these systems. They were mostly passive users with these systems being used for very specific purposes. However, there has been growing emphasis on using these systems, especially software systems, in governance and delivery of public services to citizenry. A lot of these public services are routine in nature and not particularly associated with life threatening risks (unlike power grids, cars etc.). Perhaps this is one reason why so many software systems for the delivery of public services are so poorly designed. Not only the design itself can be poor, but also the testing and validation for these systems is taken very lightly. I also feel that the testing and validation of these systems have to sync with the general life style and attitudes of the citizenry they serve. However, this is perhaps asking for the famous Swiss chocolates when not even a basic candy is available. ūüėõ

Software systems that are used in industrial systems undergo rigorous testing and validation and still they can fail, crash, malfunction and give erroneous results. Studies conducted on the economic cost of such badly designed systems have reported losses of billions of dollars (see here and here). However, if badly designed software is used to provide citizen services, I am not aware of any report that analyzes the associated economic loss. You may be wondering what triggered this post or this conclusion. Well, in India, the government has mandated booking of cooking gas via dedicated hotline numbers which connect to a software system that manages the booking request, generation of customer invoice etc. However, during a recent such exercise, my father received a SMS that the booking has been cancelled (with an even funnier reason stated in the SMS: “Reason: Cancelled Booking”). He did not apply for cancellation. So, he had to drive to the vendor to inquire about this because a number of these vendors are not responsive enough to answer such questions on phone. The vendor replied that it is a software glitch and the booking will be processed shortly; the SMS can be ignored. Not only all this put stress on a citizen but also resulted in precious petrol going down the drain. Now multiply this one incident with another one lakh (a hundred thousand; a very conservative estimate) such cases a month and you get the picture. By the way, there are around 15 crore (i.e. 15 million) consumers of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, the primary cooking gas in India) (see here).

Apart from the economic cost (whether big or small), such incident create friction and distrust in the system. This is a bigger danger as it cannot be put in monetary terms. Citizens begin to suspect service providers and begin to complain. All of this can be avoided if these social software systems are properly designed and the service providers educated about their proper usage. Unfortunately, this last part seems to be the least of concerns for many people involved in such exercises.